Chapter 20

Increasing Graphics Performance

by Mark Wutka


If you are just doing simple animation sequences in Java,the performance you get from most Java environments is probably fine. If you are trying to write a video game or some other graphics-intensive program, you may find that you have to squeeze out every bit of performance from Java. Sometimes you are able to make some basic assumptions about the graphics environment you are running on, but that is not the case with Java. You don't know if your program will be running on a laptop with a simple VGA card, or on a Silicon Graphics system with extremely fast graphics.

On the PC platform alone, you have a wide variety of graphics capabilities. A simple system may have an old VGA card with an ISA bus interface, or an accelerated graphics card running on a PCI bus Pentium system. The approach used by many graphics vendors is to detect the system type either at installation time or at runtime. Once a program knows how well the graphics perform,it can adjust itself to accommodate a slower system. You can do this in Java, as well.In fact, it is even more important in Java since Java runs on so many different platforms.

Aside from adjusting to the capabilities of the local system, you can also reduce the amount of drawing your program has to do. If you redraw only the parts of a screen that need to be redrawn, you have more time to perform other tasks, or to create more animation frames.

Double-Buffering to Speed Up Drawing

Double-buffering, which was introduced in Chapter 5 "Animating Images," is typically used to prevent flicker when you are doing animation. Under some graphics systems, however, it can also increase the graphics drawing speed.

This happens when the native drawing routines in the operating system have a lot of overhead when drawing to a visible area. The operating system often does far less work when you are writing to an off-screen area.

Just to refresh your memory, when you do double-buffering, you create an image that is the same size as the screen. You then use the getGraphics method to get a graphics context for the image, which you pass to your paint method. When the paint method does its drawing, it is really drawing on the image you created and not the actual screen. Once the paint method is finished, the update method copies the off-screen image to the screen.

Detecting the Best Drawing Method at Runtime

Unfortunately, some Java systems draw faster when they are drawing off-screen, whereas others draw faster when they are drawing to the visible area. If you don't mind taking a short delay when your applet starts up, you can do a quick benchmark to choose between double-buffering and straight drawing.

There are many reasons for the speed differences between double-buffering and straight drawing. Sometimes the way the graphics system is implemented makes a difference. Some graphics systems can draw bitmaps to the screen much faster than they can draw individual pixels. In these cases, it is often better to write to a buffer and then draw the whole buffer. Other times, the graphics system may copy things to a buffer anyway, and if you draw to your own off-screen buffer, you waste time copying from one buffer to another.

To autodetect the graphics speed, do a simple series of drawings on an off-screen image and record the number of milliseconds it takes to complete the drawing. Then, do the same series of drawings to the screen and compare the results.

If you want the test to be invisible, do all the drawings in the applet's background color. Instead of doing the drawings invisibly, you can make a neat design that is just a normal part of the applet's startup.

Listing 20.1 shows an autodetect method that tries doing double-buffering and direct drawing. It tries to draw a series of images as many times as it can for approximately 500 milliseconds. Normally, you would just use whichever method is able to draw more frames in 500 milliseconds. If they happen to come up with the same number of frames, this autodetect method compares the total time used by each test. It is possible that one of the tests was allowed more drawing time than the other. If that is the case, and the tests each drew the same number of frames, the test that took less time to run is the faster method.

Listing 20.1  doAutoDetect Method from
// doAutoDetect performs tries drawing to the screen and to a
// buffer. Whichever one takes the least time (actually, whichever
// one it can do the most times within a set time constraint) is
// the one that is best.

     protected void doAutoDetect(Graphics g)

// Create the off-screen drawing area

          offscreenImage = createImage(size().width, size().height);
          offscreenGraphics = offscreenImage.getGraphics();

          long start;
          long end;

// Tally the number of times we were able to draw direct and buffered
          int directCount = 0;
          int bufferedCount = 0;

// Draw in the applet's background color, makes the autodetection invisible.

// Mark what time we started
          start = System.currentTimeMillis();
          end = start;

// Paint patterns directly to the screen, but only for 500 milliseconds

          while ((end-start) < 500) {
               end = System.currentTimeMillis();

// record the total time spent drawing directly
          long directTime = end - start;
          start = System.currentTimeMillis();
          end = start;

// Paint patterns to the offscreen graphics, but only for 500 milliseconds

          while ((end-start) < 500) {
               end = System.currentTimeMillis();

          long bufferedTime = end - start;

// If we were able to draw more times using the buffered graphics,
// or if the drawing counts are the same, but the total time for
// the buffering was less, buffering is faster.

          if ((bufferedCount > directCount) ||
               ((bufferedCount == directCount) &&
                (bufferedTime < directTime))) {
               drawDirect = false;
          } else {

// If we want to draw direct, free the space taken up by the
// offscreen image and graphics context.
               offscreenImage = null;
               offscreenGraphics = null;
               drawDirect = true;
          detected = true;

The doAutoDetect method does not do any drawing itself. Instead, it calls another method called paintDetectDesign. This allows you to change the pattern you draw to perform the test. One of the things you might do when performing your test is to simulate the kind of drawing you plan to do. If you plan to draw a lot of images, your drawing test should draw some images. Listing 20.2 shows a sample paintDetectDesign that performs some basic graphics operations.

Listing 20.2  paintDetectDesign Method from
// paintDetectDesign performs some graphical operations to gauge the time
// it takes to paint either directly or to an offscreen area. It just draws
// some lines, boxes and ovals a number of times and then returns.

     protected void paintDetectDesign(Graphics g)
          for (int i=0; i < 10; i++) {
               g.drawLine(0, 0, 100, 100);
               g.fillRect(0, 0, 100, 100);
               g.fillOval(0, 0, 100, 100);

Creating an Autodetecting update Method

The trick with running the autodetection method is that you must run it from your update method. You can also run it from your paint method, but only if your update method isn't already doing double-buffering. You can create an update method that can be reused again and again, and can adapt to either direct screen drawing or double-buffered drawing.

The update method first checks to see if it has already performed the autodetection, and if not, calls doAutoDetect. Next, if the autodetection decided that it is faster to do double- buffering, the update method clears the drawing area in the off-screen buffer and then calls the paint method, making paint draw to the off-screen buffer.

If it is faster to draw directly to the screen, the update method simply calls super.update, which will clear the screen and call the paint method. Listing 20.3 shows an update method that performs all of these functions and works in conjunction with the doAutoDetect method.

Listing 20.3  update Method from
     public void update(Graphics g)

// If we haven't run auto-detection yet, do it now
          if (!detected) {

// If we draw direct, go ahead and call the parent update. This will
// clear the drawing area and then call paint. If you don't want the
// drawing area cleared, just change the super.update(g);
// to paint(g);

          if (drawDirect) {
          } else {

// If we're doing buffered drawing, simulate the effects of the
// default update method by clearing the offscreen drawing area.
// If you don't want the drawing area cleared, remove the calls
// to setColor and fillRect.

// Clear the offscreen drawing area and set the drawing
// color back to foreground.

               offscreenGraphics.fillRect(0, 0, size().width,

// Paint to the offscreen image


// Copy the offscreen image to the screen

               g.drawImage(offscreenImage, 0, 0, this);

The doAutoDetect and update methods from the AutoDetect class require some other variables to be present. You will find the complete source to the AutoDetect class on the CD that comes with this book.

Performing Selective Updates

Normally, when you want to redraw the screen you call the repaint method. This in turn calls update, which calls paint, which redraws the entire screen. If you are redrawing a complex scene, you could spend a lot of time redrawing things that never changed.

If you can keep track of which part of the screen actually changed and just redraw that part, you will save a lot of time. Unfortunately, it isn't always so easy to redraw only a portion of the screen.

Graphics systems like to deal with rectangles when it comes to repainting. Some systems allow you to create a list of rectangles describing the changed regions.

Java does not permit this, however. You can either repaint the entire screen or repeatedly call the repaint method for each rectangular region of the screen that needs to be changed.

Your ability to override the update method gives you a third option. If you create an update method that does not clear the screen, you can call repaint for the entire drawing area. Then, in your paint routine, examine only the changed areas and redraw them.

Listing 20.4 shows an applet that calls repaint to redraw only portions of the drawing area. The applet draws several rectangles, but will redraw only a rectangle if it touches the part of the screen that is being repainted. You can find out the part of the screen that is being repainted by calling the getClipRect method in the Graphics object that is passed to the paint method. The getClipRect method returns a Rectangle object that describes the area being repainted. One of the handy features about the Rectangle class is that it contains a method to tell whether two rectangles intersect. The UpdateRects applet uses this capability to see which of its rectangles intersect with the drawing area. If a rectangle doesn't intersect with the current drawing area, it doesn't repaint that rectangle.

If you want to see if a Polygon object intersects with the drawing area, you can use the getBoundingRect method in the Polygon class to get the rectangle that encloses the polygon. You can then use the intersects method in the enclosing rectangle to see if it intersects with the drawing area. There are cases where this technique might cause you to redraw a polygon when it really didn't need to be redrawn, but the amount of work it would take to prevent these cases probably won't save you any time overall.

Listing 20.4  Source Code for
import java.awt.*;
import java.applet.*;

// This applet demonstrates the use of selective updates, calling
// repaint specifically for the areas that change.

public class UpdateRects extends Applet implements TimerCallback

// colors contains the colors we cycle through for each shape we draw
     Color colors[] = {
,,, Color.yellow

// rects contains the rectangles for each area we want to draw

     Rectangle rects[] = {
          new Rectangle(0, 0, 50, 50),
          new Rectangle(100, 0, 50, 50),
          new Rectangle(0, 100, 50, 50),
          new Rectangle(100, 100, 50, 50)

// We cycle each rectangle through a set of colors. Start them off
// with different colors.

     int rectColor[] = { 0, 1, 2, 3 };

     Timer timer;

// paint assumes that it is only painting a portion of the screen.
// It examines the area it is supposed to repaint by calling
// getClipRect, then it uses the intersects method in the Rectangle
// class to see which rectangles intersect with the repainted area.
// If a rectangle doesn't intersect, it doesn't need to be redrawn.

     public void paint(Graphics g)

// Get the area we are painting
          Rectangle clipRect = g.getClipRect();

          for (int i=0; i < rects.length; i++) {

// If this rectangle doesn't intersect with the clipping area,
// we don't need to repaint it, so just go on to the next rectangle

               if (!clipRect.intersects(rects[i])) continue;

// For each rectangle we just call fillOval and use the dimensions of
// the rectangle.
               g.fillOval(rects[i].x, rects[i].y,
                    rects[i].width, rects[i].height);

// For every timer tick we change the colors of each rectangle and
// call repaint for each area we change, rather than calling one
// big repaint.

     public void tick()
          for (int i=0; i < rects.length; i++) {

// Change the rectangle's color
               rectColor[i] = (rectColor[i] + 1) %

// Call repaint just for this rectangle

               repaint(rects[i].x, rects[i].y, rects[i].width,

     public void start()
// Timer tick every 250 milliseconds (4 times a second)
          timer = new Timer(this, 250);

     public void stop()
          timer = null;

Alternatively, you can create a rectangle that represents the changed area and enlarge the rectangle to encompass newly changed areas. The Rectangle class contains an add method that returns the smallest rectangle that encloses two other rectangles.

When you determine the rectangle that encloses a changed area, you add that rectangle to the current changed area, producing a new changed-area rectangle. You have to be careful with this approach. If you start adding all your rectangles together, you may end up with one big rectangle that is as large as the drawing area.

This method is useful when you are moving an object around in fairly small increments. If the rectangular area holding the object's old area intersects with the new area, you might be better off adding the rectangles together. The closer the areas are to each other, the better it is to add the rectangles. If they are far apart, the sum of the rectangles holds a lot more unaffected space.

This might cause you to spend a lot of time repainting areas that haven't changed. Adding rectangles is a trade-off. You have to balance the redrawing of areas that may not need redrawing against the reduced number of repaints you actually do.

Redrawing Changed Areas

Rather than updating changed rectangular regions, you can simply redraw the changed areas. You create an update method that does not clear the drawing area. Instead, you assume that everything should stay the same and just redraw the changed parts.

This is most useful when you don't need to move objects around to arbitrary locations. Instead, you have fixed positions that can change and you just need to keep track of which ones have changed. It becomes more difficult to do this when you have overlapping objects that move frequently. Every time you update a portion of the screen, you have to figure out which objects are even partially visible in the changed section of screen, and you must repaint each object.

A Tetris game is a perfect example of this kind of selective updating. The game board is a grid. No grid cells overlap and you don't move any objects across the cells. All you need to do when redrawing a Tetris board is paint the grid cells that have changed since the last time you repainted.

The big snag with this technique is that it doesn't work well for direct screen painting, only for off-screen drawing. The reason is that the drawing area can be erased by the windowing system at any time, and your paint method is responsible for restoring it. In other words, you may be keeping track of the sections of the screen that you change, but the screen can be changed by external programs, as well. For instance, someone could open up another application that obscures your drawing area, and then close down that application again. At that point, you would need to update the entire screen.

If you are updating only specific areas of the screen, you will lose the rest if the screen gets erased. This doesn't happen with off-screen drawing because you control the drawing surface completely. It doesn't get erased unless you erase it.

If you are drawing off-screen (double-buffering), you can take advantage of the fact that the drawing area is available at any time and can't be accidentally erased. You can do your drawing from anywhere in your program, not just in the paint method. Of course, the off-screen picture won't be shown on the screen until your paint method is called.

This can be a huge advantage, since you don't have to keep track of what needs to be drawn when the paint method finally gets called. If you decide something needs to be changed, you change it immediately.

Listing 20.5 shows a series of methods from a Tetris-like applet that drops blocks on the screen. There are several methods for drawing blocks that actually draw on the off-screen drawing area. After a drawing method has drawn its blocks, it calls repaint to redraw the screen.

Listing 20.5  Partial Listing of
// paintBlock colors in a single grid block on a graphics object

     public void paintBlock(Graphics g, int x, int y)

          g.fillRect(x * blockSize, y * blockSize,
               blockSize, blockSize);

// drawNewBlock paints a new block on the off-screen image, then calls
// repaint for just that block's area

     public void drawNewBlock(int x, int y)
          paintBlock(offscreenGraphics, x, y);

          repaint(x * blockSize, y * blockSize, blockSize, blockSize);

// drawBlockPair paints a block and the block below, then calls repaint
// for the 2-block area.

     public void drawBlockPair(int x, int y)
          paintBlock(offscreenGraphics, x, y);
          paintBlock(offscreenGraphics, x, y+1);

          repaint(x * blockSize, y * blockSize, blockSize, blockSize*2);

// drawAllBlocks draws all the blocks in the grid to the off-screen area,
// then calls repaint for the entire screen.

     public void drawAllBlocks()
          for (int y=0; y < gridHeight; y++) {
               for (int x=0; x < gridWidth; x++) {
                    paintBlock(offscreenGraphics, x, y);
     public void paint(Graphics g)
          g.drawImage(offscreenImage, 0, 0, this);

     public void update(Graphics g)

Notice that the drawBlock and drawBlockPair methods in call repaint with a specific region. Even though the paint method assumes it is redrawing the entire screen, it really updates just a tiny portion of the screen. This technique does make a difference, even when paint still tries to draw the whole area. The reason it makes a difference is that you aren't using the low-level graphics routines to update every pixel on the screen, which does take some time.

The whole reason for this exercise of drawing to an off-screen buffer is that you are no longer constrained to doing all your drawing in the paint method. As soon as you decide that something on the screen needs to change, you can change it. Of course, you have to repaint the screen before the change is visible.

The BlockDrop applet drops blocks from the top of the screen by using a timer. It is able to redraw blocks from within the tick method (called by the timer) because it is drawing to an off-screen buffer. If it were drawing directly to the screen, it would have to make a note of which items had changed and then repaint the area for those items. The paint method would have to look at what had changed and repaint only those areas of the screen. Listing 20.6 shows the tick method from the BlockDrop applet. Notice that once it decides to add a new block or change a block, it immediately calls the methods to redraw the blocks.

Listing 20.6  tick Method from
// Every time tick is called, either move the current block down, or
// start a new block

     public void tick()
// If there isn't a block falling, create a new one

          if (!blockFalling) {
               blockX = (int)(gridWidth * Math.random());
               blockY = 0;

// Put the block into the grid with a random color (adjust the random color
// to start at 1 and not 0).

               blockGrid[blockY][blockX] = 1+(int)((colors.length-1) *
               blockFalling = true;

               drawNewBlock(blockX, blockY);
          } else {

// See if we can still move the block down. If the block's Y is still above
// the bottom, and the color of the grid element below it is 0, the block
// is allowed to move.
               if ((blockY < gridHeight-1) &&
                    (blockGrid[blockY+1][blockX]) == 0) {

// Copy the block's color to the grid element below
                    blockGrid[blockY+1][blockX] = 
// Clear out the current grid element
                    blockGrid[blockY][blockX] = 0;

// Draw both the newly empty element and the block's new location
                    drawBlockPair(blockX, blockY-1);
               } else {
// If we can't move the block, need to check the next time
                    blockFalling = false;
// See if the bottom is full

Figure 20.1 shows the BlockDrop applet in action. The complete source code to is on the CD that comes with this book.

Figure 20.1 : The BlockDrop applet calls drawing routines from outside the paint method.

You can convert the BlockDrop applet to do direct screen writes very easily. Simply comment out the calls to paintBlock in drawNewBlock, drawBlockPair, and drawAllBlocks, and insert the following update method:

public void update(Graphics g)
        Rectangle clipRect = g.getClipRect();

// Compute the starting X and ending X of the area to be repainted

        int blockStartX = clipRect.x / blockSize;
        int blockEndX = (clipRect.x + clipRect.width) / blockSize;
        if (blockEndX >= gridWidth) blockEndX = gridWidth - 1;

// Compute the starting Y and ending Y of the area to be repainted

        int blockStartY = clipRect.y / blockSize;
        int blockEndY = (clipRect.y + clipRect.height) / blockSize;
        if (blockEndY >= gridHeight) blockEndY = gridHeight - 1;

// Repaint only the blocks that need to be repainted

        for (int y=blockStartY; y <= blockEndY; y++) {
                for (int x=blockStartX; x <= blockEndX; x++) {
                        paintBlock(g, x, y);

Some of these issues may be less important as the Java graphics system is improved. One of the features to be added is sprite animation, which allows you to define objects that can move around the screen. The graphics system would then take care of updating the changed areas. You would no longer have to keep track of them by hand.