Electronic mail (e-mail) is undoubtedly one of the most popular applications. [Caceres et al. 1991] shows that about one-half of all TCP connections are for the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, SMTP. (On a byte count basis, FTP connections carry more data.) [Paxson 1993] found that the average mail message contains around 1500 bytes of data, but some messages contain megabytes of data, because electronic mail is sometimes used to send files. Figure 28.1 shows an outline of e-mail exchange using TCP/IP.
Users deal with a user agent, of which there are a multitude to choose from. Popular user agents for Unix include MH, Berkeley Mail, Elm, and Mush.
The exchange of mail using TCP is performed by a message transfer agent (MTA). The most common MTA for Unix systems is Sendmail. Users normally don't deal with the MTA. It is the responsibility of the system administrator to set up the local MTA. Users often have a choice, however, for their user agent.
This chapter examines the exchange of electronic mail between the two MTAs using TCP. We do not look at the operation or design of user agents.
RFC 821 [Postel 1982] specifies the SMTP protocol.
This is how two MTAs communicate with each other across a single
TCP connection. RFC 822 [Crocker 1982] specifies the format of
the electronic mail message that is transmitted using RFC 821
between the two MTAs.
28.2 SMTP Protocol
The communication between the two MTAs uses NVT ASCII. Commands are sent by the client to the server, and the server responds with numeric reply codes and optional human-readable strings. This is similar to what we saw with FTP in the previous chapter.
There are a small number of commands that the client can send to the server: less than a dozen. (By comparison, FTP has more than 40 commands.) Rather than describing each one, we'll start with a simple example to show what happens when we send mail.
We'll send a simple one-line message and watch the SMTP connection. We invoke our user agent with the -v flag, which is passed to the mail transport agent (Sendmail in this case). This MTA displays what is sent and received across the SMTP connection when this flag is specified. Lines beginning with >>> are commands sent by the SMTP client, and lines beginning with a 3-digit reply code are from the SMTP server. Here is the interactive session:
|sun % mail -v email@example.com||invoke our user agent|
|To: firstname.lastname@example.org||this is output by user agent|
|Subject : testing||we're then prompted for a subject|
|user agent adds one blank line between headers and body|
|1, 2, 3.||this is what we type as the body of the message|
|.||we type a period on a line by itself to say we're done|
|Sending letter ... email@example.com...||verbose output from user agent|
|following is output by MTA (Sendmail)|
|Connecting to mailhost via ether...|
|Trying 188.8.131.52... connected.|
|220 noao.edu Sendmail 4.1/SAG-Noao.G89 ready at Mon, 19 Jul 93 12:47:34 MST|
|>>> HELO sun.tuc.noao.edu.|
|250 noao.edu Hello sun.tuc.noao.edu., pleased to meet you|
|>>> MAIL From: <firstname.lastname@example.org>|
|250 <email@example.com>... Sender ok|
|>>> RCPT To:<firstname.lastname@example.org>|
|250 <email@example.com>... Recipient ok|
|354 Enter mail, end with "." on a line by itself|
|250 Mail accepted|
|221 noao.edu delivering mail|
|sent.||this is output by user agent|
Only five SMTP commands are used to send the mail: HELO, MAIL, RCPT, DATA, and QUIT.
We type mail to invoke our user agent. We're then prompted for a subject, and after typing that, we type the body of the message. Typing a period on a line by itself completes the message and the user agent passes the mail to the MTA for delivery.
The client does the active open to TCP port 25. When this returns, the client waits for a greeting message (reply code 220) from the server. This server's response must start with the fully qualified domain name of the server's host: noao.edu in this example. (Normally the text that follows the numeric reply code is optional. Here the domain name is required. The text beginning with Sendmail is optional.)
Next the client identifies itself with the HELO command. The argument must be the fully qualified domain name of the client host: sun.tuc.noao.edu.
The MAIL command identifies the originator of the message. The next command, RCPT, identifies the recipient. More than one RCPT command can be issued if there are multiple recipients.
The contents of the mail message are sent by the client using the DATA command. The end of the message is specified by the client sending a line containing just a period. The final command, QUIT, terminates the mail exchange.
Figure 28.2 is a time line of the SMTP connection between the sender SMTP (the client) and the receiver SMTP (the server). We have removed the connection establishment and termination, and the window size advertisements.
The amount of data we typed to our user agent was a one-line message ("1, 2, 3."), yet 393 bytes of data are sent in segment 12. The following 12 lines comprise the 393 bytes that are sent by the client:
Received: by sun.tuc.noao.edu. (4.1/SMI-4.1)
id AA00502; Mon, 19 Jul 93 12:47:32 MST
From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Richard Stevens)
Date: Mon, 19 Jul 1993 12:47:31 -0700
X-Phone: +1 602 676 1676
X-Mailer: Mail User's Shell (7.2.5 10/14/92)
1, 2, 3.
The first three lines, Received: and Message-Id:, are added by the MTA, and the next nine are generated by the user agent.
The minimal SMTP implementation supports eight commands. We saw five of them in the previous example: HELO, MAIL, RCPT, DATA, and QUIT.
The RSET command aborts the current mail transaction and causes both ends to reset. Any stored information about sender, recipients, or mail data is discarded.
The VRFY command lets the client ask the sender to verify a recipient address, without sending mail to the recipient. It's often used by a system administrator, by hand, for debugging mail delivery problems. We'll show an example of this in the next section.
The NOOP command does nothing besides force the server to respond with an OK reply code (200).
There are additional, optional commands. EXPN expands a mailing list, and is often used by the system administrator, similar to VRFY. Indeed, most versions of Sendmail handle the two identically.
Version 8 of Sendmail in 4.4BSD no longer handles the two identically. VRFY does not expand aliases and doesn't follow .forward files.
The TURN command lets the client and server switch roles, to send mail in the reverse direction, without having to take down the TCP connection and create a new one. (Sendmail does not support this command.) There are three other commands (SEND, SOML, and SAML), which are rarely implemented, that replace the MAIL command. These three allow combinations of the mail being delivered directly to the user's terminal (if logged in), or sent to the recipient's mailbox.
Electronic mail is composed of three pieces.
MAIL From: <email@example.com>
RFC 821 specifies the contents and interpretation of the envelope, and the protocol used to exchange mail across a TCP connection.
The user agent takes what we specify as the body, adds some headers, and passes the result to the MTA. The MTA adds a few headers, adds the envelope, and sends the result to another MTA.
The term content is often used to describe the combination of headers and the body. The content is sent by the client with the DATA command.
The first line of informational output by our local MTA in our example is "Connecting to mailhost via ether." This is because the author's system has been configured to send all nonlocal outgoing mail to a relay machine for delivery.
This is done for two reasons. First, it simplifies the configuration of all MTAs other than the relay system's MTA. (Configuring an MTA is not simple, as anyone who has ever worked with Sendmail can attest to.) Second, it allows one system at an organization to act as the mail hub, possibly hiding all the individual systems.
In this example the relay system has a hostname of mailhost in the local domain (.tuc.noao.edu) and all the individual systems are configured to send their mail to this host. We can execute the host command to see how this name is defined to the DNS:
|sun % host mailhost|
|noao.edu||A||184.108.40.206||its real IP address|
If the host used as the relay changes in the future, only its DNS name need change-the mail configuration of all the individual systems does not change.
Most organizations are using relay systems today. Figure 28.3 is a revised picture of Internet mail (Figure 28.2), taking into account that both the sending host and the final receiving host probably use a relay host.
In this scenario there are four MTAs between the sender and receiver. The local MTA on the sender's host just delivers the mail to its relay MTA. (This relay MTA could have a hostname of mailhost in the organization's domain.) This communication uses SMTP across the organization's local internet. The relay MTA in the sender's organization then sends the mail to the receiving organization's relay MTA across the Internet. This other relay MTA then delivers the mail to the receiver's host, by communication with the local MTA on the receiver's host. All the MTAs in this example use SMTP, although the possibility exists for other protocols to be used.
One feature of SMTP is that it uses NVT ASCII for everything: the envelope, the headers, and the body. As we said in Section 26.4, this is a 7-bit character code, transmitted as 8-bit bytes, with the high-order bit set to 0.
In Section 28.4 we discuss some newer features of Internet mail, extended SMTP and multimedia mail (MIME), that allow the sending and receiving of data such as audio and video. We'll see that MIME works with NVT ASCII for the envelope, headers, and body, with changes required only in the user agents.
When a user agent passes a new mail message to its MTA, delivery is normally attempted immediately. If the delivery fails, the MTA must queue the message and try again later.
The Host Requirements RFC recommends an initial timeout
of at least 30 minutes. The sender should not give up for at least
4-5 days. Furthermore, since delivery failures are often transient
(the recipient has crashed or there is a temporary loss of network
connectivity), it makes sense to try two connection attempts during
the first hour that the message is in the queue.
28.3 SMTP Examples
We showed normal mail delivery in the previous section, so here we'll show how MX records are used for mail delivery, and illustrate the VRFY and EXPN commands.
In Section 14.6 we mentioned that one type of resource record in the DNS is the mail exchange record, called MX records. In the following example we'll show how MX records are used to send mail to hosts that are not directly connected to the Internet. RFC 974 [Partridge 1986] describes the handling of MX records by MTAs.
The host mlfarm.com is not directly connected to the Internet, but has an MX record that points to a mail forwarder that is on the Internet:
|sun % host -a-v-t mx mlfarm.com|
|The following answer is not authoritative:|
There are two MX records, each with a different preference. We expect the MTA to start with the lower of the two preference values.
The following script shows mail being sent to this host:
|sun % mail -v ron@mlf arm.com||-v flag to see what the MTA does|
|To: ron@mlf arm.com|
|Subject: MX test message|
|the body of the message is typed here (not shown) period on a line by itself to terminate message|
|Sending letter ... firstname.lastname@example.org...|
|Connecting to mlfarm.com via tcp|
|... mail exchanger is mercury.hsi.com||the MX records are found|
|Trying 220.127.116.11... connected.||First tries the one with lower preference|
|220 mercury.hsi.com ...||remainder is normal SMTP mail transfer|
We can see in this output that the MTA discovered that the destination host had an MX record and used the MX record with the lowest preference value.
Before running this example from the host sun, it was configured not to use its normal relay host, so we could see the mail exchange with the destination host. It was also configured to use the name server on the host noao.edu (which is across its dialup SLIP link), so we could capture both the mail transfer and the DNS traffic using tcpdump on the SLIP link. Figure 28.4 shows the starting portion of the tcpdump output.
|1||0.0||sun.1624 > noao.edu.53: 2+ MX? mlfarm.com. (28)|
|2||0.445572 (0.4456)||noao.edu.53 > sun.1624: 2* 2/0/2 MX mercury.hsi.com. 10 (113)|
|3||0.505739 (0.0602)||sun.1143 > mercury.hsi.com.25: S 1617536000:1617536000(0) win 4096|
|4||0.985428 (0.4797)||mercury.hsi.com.25 > sun.1143: S 1832064000:1832064000(0) ack 1617536001 win 16384|
|5||0.986003 (0.0006)||sun.1143 > mercury.hsi.com.25: . ack 1 win 4096|
|6||1.735360 (0.7494)||mercury.hsi.com.25 > sun.1143: P 1:90(89) ack 1 win 16384|
In line 1 the MTA queries its name server for an MX record for mlfarm.com. The plus sign following the 2 means the recursion-desired flag is set. The response in line 2 has the authoritative bit set (the asterisk following the 2) and contains 2 answer RRs (the two MX host names), 0 authority RRs, and 2 additional RRs (the IP addresses of the two hosts).
In lines 3-5 a TCP connection is established with the SMTP server on the host mercury.hsi.com. The server's initial 220 response is shown in line 6.
Somehow the host mercury.hsi.com must deliver this mail message to the destination, mlfarm.com. The UUCP protocols are a popular way for a system not connected to the Internet to exchange mail with its MX site.
In this example the MTA asks for an MX record, gets a positive result, and sends the mail. Unfortunately the interaction between an MTA and the DNS can differ between implementations. RFC 974 specifies that an MTA should ask for MX records first, and if none are found, attempt delivery to the destination host (i.e., ask the DNS for an A record for the host, for its IP address). MTAs must also deal with CNAME records in the DNS (canonical names).
As an example, if we send mail to email@example.com from a BSD/386 host, the following steps are executed by the MTA (Sendmail).
sun % host -t cname mailhost.tuc.noao.edu
mailhost.tuc.noao.edu CNAME noao.edu
sun % host -t mx noao.edu
noao.edu MX noao.edu
A CNAME query is not tried for the data returned in the MX record (noao.edu). The data in the MX record cannot be an alias-it must be the name of a host that has an A record.
The version of Sendmail distributed with SunOS 4.1.3 that uses the DNS only queries for MX records, and gives up if an MX record isn't found.
Another use of MX records is to provide an alternative mail receiver when the destination host is down. If we look at the DNS entry for our host sun we see that it has two MX records:
|sun % host -a-v-t mx sun.tuc.noao.edu|
The MX record with the lowest preference indicates that direct delivery to the host itself should be tried first, and the next preference is to deliver the mail to the host noao.edu.
In the following script we send mail to ourself at the host sun.tuc.noao.edu, from the host vangogh.cs.berkeley.edu, after turning off the destination's SMTP server. When a connection request arrives for port 25, TCP should respond with an RST, since no process has a passive open pending for that port.
|vangogh % mail -v firstname.lastname@example.org|
|A test to a host that's down.|
|email@example.com... Connecting to sun.tuc.noao.edu. (smtp)...|
|firstname.lastname@example.org... Connecting to noao.edu. (smtp)...|
|220 noao.edu||remainder is normal SMTP mail transfer|
We see that the MTA tries to contact sun.tuc.noao.edu and then gives up and contacts noao.edu instead.
Figure 28.5 is the tcpdump output that shows that TCP responds to the incoming SYNs with an RST.
|1||0.0||vangogh.3873 > 18.104.22.168.25: S 2358303745:2358303745(0) ...|
|2||0.000621 (0.0006)||22.214.171.124.25 > vangogh.3873: R 0:0(0) ack 2358303746 win 0|
|3||0.300203 (0.2996)||vangogh.3874 > 126.96.36.199.25: S 2358367745:2358367745(0) ...|
|4||0.300620 (0.0004)||188.8.131.52.25 > vangogh.3874; R 0:0(0) ack 2358367746 win 0|
In line 1 vangogh sends a SYN to port 25 at the primary IP address for sun: 184.108.40.206. This is rejected in line 2. The SMTP client on vangogh then tries the next IP address for sun: 220.127.116.11 (line 3), and it also causes an RST to be returned (line 4).
The SMTP client doesn't try to differentiate between the different error returns from its active open on line 1, which is why it tries the other IP address on line 3. If the error had been something like "host unreachable" for the first attempt, it's possible that the second attempt could work.
If the reason the SMTP client's active open fails is because the server host is down, we would see the client retransmit the SYN to IP address 18.104.22.168 for a total of 75 seconds (similar to Figure 18.6), followed by the client sending another three SYNs to IP address 22.214.171.124 for another 75 seconds. After 150 seconds the client would move on to the next MX record with the higher preference.
The VRFY command verifies that a recipient address is OK, without actually sending mail. EXPN is intended to expand a mailing list, without sending mail to the list. Many SMTP implementations (such as Sendmail) consider the two the same, but we mentioned that newer versions of Sendmail do differentiate between the two.
As a simple test we can connect to a newer version of Sendmail and see the difference. (We have removed the extraneous Telnet client output.)
sun % telnet vangogh.cs.berkeley.edu
220-vangogh.CS. Berkeley. EDU Sendmail 8.1C/6.32 ready at Tue, 3 Aug 1993 14: 59:12 -0700
220 ESMTP spoken here
250 vangogh.CS.Berkeley.EDU Hello sun.tuc.noao.edu [126.96.36.199], pleased to meet you
550 nosuchname... User unknown
250 Richard Stevens <rstevens@vangogh.CS.Berkeley.EDU>
250 Richard Stevens <email@example.com>
First notice that we purposely typed the wrong hostname on the HELO command: bsdi instead of sun. Most SMTP servers take the IP address of the client and perform a DNS pointer query (Section 14.5) and compare the hostnames. This allows the server to log the client connection based on the IP address, not the name that a user might have mistyped. Some servers respond with humorous messages, such as "You are a charlatan," or "why do you call yourself...". We see in this example that this server just prints our real domain name from the pointer query along with our IP address.
We then type a VRFY command for an invalid name, and the server responds with a 550 error. Next we type a valid name, and the server responds with the usemame on the local host. Next we try the EXPN command and get a different response. The EXPN command determines that the mail for this user is being forwarded, and prints the forwarding address.
Many sites disable the VRFY and EXPN commands, sometimes for privacy, and sometimes in the belief that it's a security hole. For example, we can try these commands with the SMTP server at the White House:
sun % telnet whitehouse.gov
220 whitehouse.gov SMTP/smap Ready.
250 (sun.tuc.noao.edu) pleased to meet you.
500 Command unrecognized
500 Command unrecognized
28.4 SMTP Futures
Changes are taking place with Internet mail. Recall the three pieces that comprise Internet mail: the envelope, headers, and body. New SMTP commands are being added that affect the envelope, non-ASCII characters can be used in the headers, and structure is being added to the body (MIME). In this section we consider the extensions to each of these three pieces in order.
RFC 1425 [Klensin et al. 1993a] defines the framework for adding extensions to SMTP. The result is called extended SMTP (ESMTP). As with other new features that we've described in the text, these changes are being added in a backward compatible manner, so that existing implementations aren't affected.
A client that wishes to use the new features initiates the session with the server by issuing a EHLO command, instead of HELO. A compatible server responds with a 250 reply code. This reply is normally multiline, with each line containing a keyword and an optional argument. These keywords specify the SMTP extensions supported by the server. New extensions will be described in an RFC and will be registered with the IANA. (In a multiline reply all lines except the last have a hyphen after the numeric reply code. The last line has a space after the numeric reply code.)
We'll show the initial connection to four SMTP servers, three of which support extended SMTP. We connect to them using Telnet, but have removed the extraneous Telnet client output.
sun % telnet vangogh.cs.berkeley.edu
220-vangogh.CS.Berkeley.EDU Sendmail 8.1C/6.32 ready at Mon, 2 Aug 1993 15: 47:48 -0700
220 ESMTP spoken here
250-vangogh.CS.Berkeley.EDU Hello sun.tuc.noao.edu [188.8.131.52], pleased to meet you
This server gives a multiline 220 reply for its greeting message. The extended commands listed in the 250 reply to the EHLO command are EXPN, SIZE, and HELP The first and last are from the original RFC 821 specification, but they are optional commands. ESMTP servers state which of the optional RFC 821 commands they support, in addition to newer commands.
The SIZE keyword that this server supports is defined in RFC 1427 [Klensin, Freed, and Moore 1993]. It lets the client specify the size of the message in bytes on the MAIL FROM command line. This lets the server verify that it will accept a message of that size, before the client starts to send it. This command was added since the size of Internet mail messages is growing, with the support for message content other than ASCII lines (i.e., images, audio, etc.).
The next host also supports ESMTP. Notice that the 250 reply specifying that the SIZE keyword is supported contains an optional argument. This indicates that this server will accept a message size up to 461 Mbytes.
sun % telnet ymir.claremont.edu
220 ymir.claremont.edu -- Server SMTP (PMDF V4.2-13 #4220)
250 SIZE 461544960
The keyword 8BITMIME is from RFC 1426 [Klensin et al. 1993b]. This allows the client to add the keyword BODY to the MAIL FROM command, specifying whether the body contains NVT ASCII characters (the default) or 8-bit data. Unless the client receives the 8BITMIME keyword from the server in response to a EHLO command, the client is forbidden from sending any characters other than NVT ASCII. (When we talk about MIME in this section, we'll see that an 8-bit SMTP transport is not required by MIME.)
This server also advertises the XADR keyword. Any keyword that begins with an X refers to a local SMTP extension.
The next server also supports ESMTP, advertising the HELP and SIZE keywords that we've already seen. It also supports three local extensions that begin with an X.
sun % telnet dbc.mtview.ca.us
220 dbc.mtview.ca.us Sendmail 5.65/3.1.090690, it's Mon, 2 Aug 93 15:48:50 -0700
ehlo sun. tuc.noao.edu
250-Hello sun.tuc.noao.edu, pleased to meet you
Finally we see what happens when the client tries to use ESMTP by issuing the EHLO command to a server that doesn't support it.
sun % telnet relay1.uu.net
220 relay1.UU.NET Sendmail 5.61/UUNET-internet-primary ready at Mon, 2 Aug 93 18:50:27 -0400
500 Command unrecognized
250 Reset state
Instead of receiving a 250 reply to the EHLO command, the client receives a 500 reply. The client should then issue the RSET command, followed by a HELO command.
RFC 1522 [Moore 1993] specifies a way to send non-ASCII characters in RFC 822 message headers. The main use of this is to allow additional characters in the sender and receiver names, and in the subject. The header fields can contain encoded words. They have the following format:
=? charset ? encoding ? encoded-text ?=
charset is the character set specification. Valid values are the two strings us-ascii and iso-8859-X, where X is a single digit, as in iso-8859-1.
encoding is a single character to specify the encoding method. Two values are supported.
When the number of characters to encode is not a multiple of three, equal signs are used as the pad characters.
The following example of these two encodings is from RFC 1522:
From: =?US-ASCII?Q?Keith_Moore?= <firstname.lastname@example.org>
To: =?ISO-8859-l?Q?Kelcl_J=F8rn_Simonsen?= <email@example.com>
CC: =?ISO-8859-l?Q?Andr=E9_?= Pirard <PIRARD@vml.ulg.ac.be>
Subject: =?ISO-8859-1?B?SWYgeW911GNhbiByZWFklHRoaXMgeW8=?= =?ISO-8859-2?B?dSBIbinRlcnNOYW5klHRoZSBIeGFtcGxlLg==?=
A user agent capable of handling these headers would output:
From: Keith Moore <firstname.lastname@example.org>
To: Keld J0rn Simonsen <email@example.com>
CC: Andre Pirard <PIRARD@vml.ulg.ac.be>
Subject: If you can read this you understand the example.
To see how base-64 encoding works, look at the first four encoded characters in the subject line: SWYg. Write out the 6-bit values for these four characters from Figure 28.6 (S=0xl2,W=0xl6,Y=0xl8,and g=0x20) in binary:
010010 010110 011000 100000
Then regroup these 24 bits into three 8-bit bytes:
which are the ASCII representations for I, f, and a space.
We've said that RFC 822 specifies the body as lines of NVT ASCII text, with no structure. RFC 1521 [Borenstein and Freed 1993] defines extensions that allow structure in the body. This is called MIME, for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.
MIME does not require any of the extensions that we've described previously in this section (extended SMTP or non-ASCII headers). MIME just adds some new headers (in accordance with RFC 822) that tell the recipient the structure of the body The body can still be transmitted using NVT ASCII, regardless of the mail contents. While some of the extensions we've just described might be nice to have along with MIME-the extended SMTP SIZE command, since MIME messages can become large, and non-ASCII headers-these extensions are not required by MIME. All that's required to exchange MIME messages with another party is for both ends to have a user agent that understands MIME. No changes are required in any of the MTAs. MIME defines the five new header fields:
As an example, the following two header lines can appear in an Internet mail message:
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII
The current MIME version is 1.0 and the content type is plain ASCII text, the default for Internet mail. The word PLAIN is considered a subtype of the content type (TEXT), and the string charset=US-ASCII is a parameter.
Text is just one of MIME'S seven defined content types. Figure 28.7 summarizes the 16 different content types and subtypes defined in RFC 1521. Numerous parameters can be specified for certain content types and subtypes.
The content type and the transfer encoding used for the body are independent. The former is specified by the Content-Type header field, and the latter by the Content-Transfer-Encoding header field. There are five different encoding formats defined in RFC 1521.
Text with simple formatting, such as bold, italic, underline, and so on.
A clarification, simplification, and refinement of richtext.
|Multiple body parts to be processed sequentially.|
Multiple body parts that can be processed in parallel.
An electronic mail digest.
Multiple body parts are present, all with identical semantic content.
|Content is another RFC 822 mail message.|
Content is a fragment of a mail message.
Content is a pointer to the actual message.
|Arbitrary binary data.|
A PostScript program.
|ISO 10918 format.|
CompuServe's Graphic Interchange Format.
|audio||basic||Encoded using 8-bit ISDN //-law format.|
|video||mpeg||ISO 11172 format.|
Only the first three of these are valid for an RFC 821 MTA, since these three generate a body containing only NVT ASCII characters. Using extended SMTP with 8BITMIME support allows 8bit encoding to be used.
Although the content type and encoding are independent, RFC 1521 recommends quoted-printable for text with non-ASCII data, and base64 for image, audio, video, and octet-stream application data. This allows maximum interoperability with RFC 821 conformant MTAs. Also, the multipart and message content types must be encoded as 7bit.
As an example of a multipart content type. Figure 28.8 shows a mail message from the RFC distribution list. The subtype is mixed, meaning each of the parts should be processed sequentially, and the boundary between the parts is the string NextPart, preceded by two hyphens at the start of a line.
Each boundary can be followed with a line specifying the header fields for the next part. Everything in the message before the first boundary is ignored, as is everything following the final boundary.
Since a blank line follows the first boundary, and not header fields, the content type of the data between the first and second boundaries is assumed to be text/plain with a character set of us-ascii. This is a textual description of the new RFC.
The second boundary, however, is followed by header fields. It specifies another multipart message, with a boundary of OtherAccess. The subtype is alternative, and two different alternatives are present. The first OtherAccess alternative is to fetch the RFC using electronic mail, and the second is to fetch it using anonymous FTP. A MIME user agent would list the two alternatives, allow us to choose one, and then automatically fetch a copy of the RFC using either mail or anonymous FTP.
|To: firstname.lastname@example.org |
Subject: RFC1479 on IDPR Protocol
Content-Type: Multipart/Mixed; Boundary="NextPart"
Date: Fri, 23 Jul 93 12:17:43 PDT
From: "Joyce K. Reynolds" <email@example.com>
|--NextPart||the first boundary|
|A new Request for Comments is now available in online RFC libraries.|
|...||(details here on the new RFC)|
|Below is the data which will enable a MIME compliant Mail Reader implementation to automatically retrieve the ASCII version of the RFCs.|
|--NextPart||the second boundary|
|Content-Type: Multipart/Alternative; Boundary="OtherAccess"|
|a nested multipart message with a new boundary|
|--NextPart--||the final boundary|
This section has been a brief overview of MIME. For
additional details and examples of MIME, see RFC 1521 and [Rose
Electronic mail involves a user agent at both ends (the sender and receiver) and two or more message transfer agents. We can divide a mail message into three parts: the envelope, the headers, and the body. We've seen how all three parts are exchanged using SMTP, the Internet standard. All three are exchanged as NVT ASCII characters.
We've also looked at newer extensions for all three parts: extended SMTP for the envelope, non-ASCII headers, and the addition of structure to the body using MIME. The structure and encoding used by MIME allow arbitrary binary data to be exchanged, using existing 7-bit SMTP MTAs.
28.1 Read RFC 822 to find out what a domain literal is. Try sending mail to yourself using one.
28.2 Excluding the connection establishment and termination, what is the minimum number of network round trips to send a small mail message?
28.3 TCP is a full-duplex protocol, yet SMTP uses TCP in a half-duplex fashion. The client sends a command then stops and waits for the reply. Why doesn't the client send multiple commands at once, for example, a single write that contains the HELO, MAIL, RCPT, DATA, and QUIT commands (assuming the body isn't too large)?
28.4 How can this half-duplex operation of SMTP fool the slow start mechanism when the network is running near capacity?
28.5 When multiple MX records exist with the same preference value, should they always be returned by a name server in the same order?