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The code supplied with this chapter in ARITH.C is a simple module that performs arithmetic compression and decompression using a simple order 0 model. It works exactly like the non-adaptive Huffman coding program in Chapter 3. It first makes a single pass over the data, counting the symbols. The data is then scaled down to make the counts fit into a single, unsigned character. The scaled counts are saved to the output file for the decompressor to get at later, then the arithmetic coding table is built. Finally, the compressor passes through the data, compressing each symbol as it appears. When done, the end-of-stream character is sent out, the arithmetic coder is flushed, and the program exits.

The compression portion of this program is shown shortly. The main module is called by the utility version of MAIN-E.C., which will have already taken care of opening files, parsing arguments, etc. Once we get to the compression phase of the program, things are ready to go.

The compressor code breaks down neatly into three sections. The first two lines initialize the model and the encoder. The while loop consists of two lines, which together with the line following the loop perform the compression, and the last three lines shut things down.

build_model( input, output->file ); initialize_arithmetic_encoder(); while ( ( c = getc( input ) ) ! = EOF ) { convert_int_to_symbol( c, &s ); encode_symbol( output, &s ); } convert_int_to_symbol( END_OF_STREAM, &s ); encode_symbol( output, &s ); flush_arithmetic_encoder( output ); OutputBits( output, OL, 16 );

The build_model() routine has several responsibilities. It makes the first pass over the input data to count all the characters. It scales down the counts to fit in unsigned characters, then it takes those counts and builds the range table used by the coder. Finally, it writes the counts to the output file so the decompressor will have access to them later.

The initialize arithmetic encoder routine is fairly simple. It just sets up the high- and low-integer variables used during the encoding. The encoding loop calls two different routines to encode the symbol. The first, convert_int_to_symbol(), takes the character read in from the file and looks up the range for the given symbol. The range is then stored in the symbol object, which has the structure shown:

typedef struct { unsigned short int low_count; unsigned short int high_count; unsigned short int scale; } SYMBOL;

These three values are all that are needed for the symbol to be encoded using the arithmetic encoder. The low-count and high-count values uniquely define where on the 0 to 1 range the symbol lies, and the scale value tells what the total span of the 0 to 1 scale is. If 1,000 characters had been counted in a text file, for example, the low_count and high_count for A might be 178 and 199, and the scale would be 1,000. This would indicate that on the 0 to 1 number scale, A would own the range .178 to .199.

Once the symbol object has been defined, it can be passed to the encoder. The arithmetic encoder needs only those three items to process the symbol and update the output number. It has the high- and low-range values and the underflow count stored internally as static variables, and it doesn’t need anything else.

The way we detached the modeling data from the coding data gives us a convenient mechanism for experimenting with new ways of modeling. We just have to come up with the numbers that get plugged into the symbol. The encoder doesn’t care how we got those numbers as long as they were derived consistently so we can decode the file later.

When we reach the end of the input file, we encode and send the end-of-stream symbol. The decompression program will use it to determine when it is done. To finish, call a routine to flush the arithmetic encoder, which takes care of any underflow bits. Finally, we have to output an extra sixteen bits. The reason for this is simple. When decoding symbols from the input bit stream, the effective bits are in the most significant bit position of the input bit registers. To get the bits there, we have to load other bits into the lower positions and shift them over. At least 15 insignificant bits are needed to decode the last symbol. Outputting 16 bits at the end of the program ensures that the decoder won’t get a premature end of file while decoding the input file.

The main part of the expansion program follows the same pattern. First, the model is set up and the arithmetic coder is initialized. In this program, initializing the model means reading in the counts from the input file where the compressor put them. Initializing the arithmetic decoder means loading the low and high registers with 0000 and FFFF, then reading the first 16 bits from the input file into the current code.

input_counts( input->file ); initialize_arithmetic_decoder( input ); for ( ; ; ) { get_symbol_scale( &s ); count = get_current_count( &s ); c = convert_symbol_to_int( count, &s ); if ( c == END_OF_STREAM ) break; remove_symbol_from_stream( input, &s ); putc( (char) c, output ); }

The decoding loop is a little more complicated in this routine to keep the modeling and decoding separate. First, get the scale for the current model to pass back to the arithmetic decoder. The decoder then converts its current input code into a count in the routine get_current_count. With the count, we can determine which symbol is the correct one to decode. This is done in the routine convert_symbol_to_int().

Though it seems strange, we don’t remove the encoded symbol from the input bit stream till after we actually decode it. The process of removing it involves standard modifications of high and low and, if necessary, shifting in new bits from the input stream. Finally, the decoded character is written to the output file.

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