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A second version of the LZW program, LZW15V.C, follows. It contains several enhancements, most of which are also found in the UNIX compress program.

LZW can be improved by increasing the size of the dictionary. As it becomes possible to store more and longer phrases, the program compresses to higher ratios. In this case, LZW15V.C uses a maximum code size of fifteen bits, which allows for a 32K phrase dictionary. While there is enough memory available on most MS-DOS machines to accommodate sixteen-bit code sizes, the program has to convert most of the indices used during compression from unsigned int values to long ints. This usually exacts a fairly heavy performance penalty on a sixteen-bit machine, so this program stayed with fifteen-bit values.

Unfortunately, moving to a larger code size actually retards compression when the file to be compressed is small. Since phrases are initially found and added to the dictionary at the same pace, whether the code is nine bits or fifteen bits long, the nine bit code will actually produce a smaller file.

There is a simple solution to this problem, however. Instead of always outputting codes using fifteen bits, LZW15V.C starts out using a nine-bit code, and it doesn’t advance to ten bits until the dictionary has added 256 new entries. It progresses through ten, eleven, twelve, etc, until it starts using fifteen-bit codes. This puts it on an equal footing with compressors using a smaller code size.

To let the decompression program know when the bit size of the output code is going to change, a special BUMP_CODE is used. This code tells the decompression program to increase the bit size immediately. While it is possible to synchronize the compressor and decompressor so that they don’t need to explicitly use a code, the BUMP_CODE was employed for purposes of clarity.

One final enhancement in LZW15V.C is the FLUSH_CODE. This tells the decompressor to throw away all phrases currently in the dictionary and to start over with a blank slate. When compressing files several hundred K bytes long, the dictionary will ordinarily fill up with phrases. At this point, the UNIX compress program starts to monitor the compression ration, looking for signs of decay. This type of algorithm could be employed in LZW15V.C, but a simpler heuristic was chosen: when the dictionary fills up, it is discarded. In practice this method generally gives results comparable to those of the compress algorithm.

/************************** Start of LZW15V.C ***************************
* This is the LZW module which implements a more powerful version
* of the algorithm. This version of the program has three major
* improvements over LZW12.C. First, it expands the maximum code size
* to 15 bits. Second, it starts encoding with 9 bit codes, working
* its way up in bit size only as necessary. Finally, it flushes the
* dictionary when done.
* Note that under MS-DOS this program needs to be built using the
* Compact or Large memory model.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include "errhand.h"
#include "bitio.h"

* Constants used throughout the program. BITS defines the maximum
* number of bits that can be used in the output code. TABLE_SIZE defines
* the size of the dictionary table. TABLE_BANKS are the number of
* 256 element dictionary pages needed. The code defines should be
* self-explanatory.
#define BITS                15
#define MAX_CODE            ( ( 1 << BITS ) - 1 )
#define TABLE_SIZE          35023L
#define TABLE_BANKS         ( ( TABLE_SIZE >> 8 ) + 1 )
#define END_OF_STREAM       256
#define BUMP_CODE           257
#define FLUSH_CODE          258
#define FIRST_CODE          259
#define UNUSED             -1

* Local prototypes.
unsigned int find_child_node( int parent_code, int child_character );
unsigned int decode_string( unsigned int offset, unsigned int code );
unsigned int find_child_node();
unsigned int decode_string();

char *CompressionName = "LZW 15 Bit Variable Rate Encoder";
char *Usage  = "in-file out-file\n\n";

* This data structure defines the dictionary. Each entry in the
* dictionary has a code value. This is the code emitted by the
* compressor. Each code is actually made up of two pieces: a
* parent_code, and a character. Code values of less than 256 are
* actually plain text codes.
* Note that in order to handle 16 bit segmented compilers, such as most
* of the MS-DOS compilers, it was necessary to break up the dictionary
* into a table of smaller dictionary pointers. Every reference to the
* dictionary was replaced by a macro that did a pointer dereference
* first. By breaking up the index along byte boundaries we should be as
* efficient as possible.

struct dictionary
 int code_value;
 int parent_code:
 char character;
} *dict[ TABLE_BANKS ]:

#define DICT( i ) dict[ i >> 8 ][ i & Oxff ]

* Other global data structures. The decode_stack is used to reverse
* strings that come out of the tree during decoding. next_code is the
* next code to be added to the dictionary, both during compression and
* decompression. current_code_bits defines how many bits are currently
* being used for output, and next_bump_code defines the code that will
* trigger the next jump in word size.

char decode_stack[ TABLE_SIZE ];
unsigned int next_code;
int current_code_bits;
unsigned int next_bump_code;

* This routine is used to initialize the dictionary, both when the
* compressor or decompressor first starts up, and also when a flush
* code comes in. Note that even though the decompressor sets all
* the code_value elements to UNUSED, it doesn't really need to.

void InitializeDictionary( void )
 unsigned int i;
 for ( i = 0 ; i < TABLE_SIZE ; i++ )
  DICT( i ).code_value = UNUSED;
 next_code = FIRST_CODE;
 putc( 'F', stdout );
 current_code_bits = 9;
 next_bump_code = 511;

* This routine allocates the dictionary. Since the total size of the
* dictionary is much larger than 64k, it can't be allocated as a single
* object. Instead, it is allocated as a set of pointers to smaller
* dictionary objects. The special DICT() macro is used to translate
* indices into pairs of references.

void InitializeStorage( void )
 int i;
 for ( i = 0 ; i < TABLE_BANKS ; i++ ) {
  dict[ i ] = ( struct dictionary *)
                calloc( 256, sizeof ( struct dictionary ) );
  if ( dict[ i ] == NULL )
    fatal_error( "Error allocating dictionary space" );

* The compressor is short and simple. It reads in new symbols one
* at a time from the input file. It then checks to see if the
* combination of the current symbol and the current code are already
* defined in the dictionary. If they are not, they are added to the
* dictionary, and we start over with a new one symbol code. If they
* are, the code for the combination of the code and character becomes
* our new code. Note that in this enhanced version of LZW, the
* encoder needs to check the codes for boundary conditions.

void CompressFile( input, output, argc, argv )

FILE *input;
BIT_FILE *output;
int argc;
char *argv[]
  int character;
  int string_code;
  unsigned int index;

  if ( ( string_code = getc( input ) ) == EOF )
    string_code = END_OF_STREAM;
  while ( ( character = getc( input ) ) != EOF ) {
    index = find_child_node( string_code, character );
    if ( DICT( index ).code_value != -1)
      string_code = DICT( index ).code_value;
    else {
      DICT( index ).code_value = next_code++;
      DICT( index ).parent_code = string_code;
      DICT( index ).character = (char) character;
      OutputBits( output,
                  (unsigned long) string_code, current_code_bits );
      string_code = character;
      if ( next_code > MAX_CODE ) {
        OutputBits( output,
                    (unsigned long) FLUSH_CODE, current_code_bits );
      } else if ( next_code > next_bump_code ) {
        OutputBits( output,
                    (unsigned long) BUMP_CODE, current_code_bits );
        next_bump_code <<= 1;
        next_bump_code |= 1;
        putc( 'B', stdout );
  OutputBits( output, (unsigned long) string_code, current_code_bits );
  OutputBits( output, (unsigned long) END_OF_STREAM, current_code_bits);
  while ( argc— > 0 )
    printf( "Unknown argument: %s\n", *argv++ );

* The file expander operates much like the encoder. It has to
* read in codes, then convert the codes to a string of characters.
* The only catch in then whole operation occurs when the encoder
* encounters a CHAR+STRING+CHAR+STRING+CHAR sequence. When this
* occurs, the encoder outputs a code that is not presently defined
* in the table. This is handled as an exception. All of the special
* input codes are handled in various ways.

void ExpandFile( input, output, argc, argv )
BIT_FILE *input;
FILE *output;
int argc;
char *argv[];
  unsigned int new_code;
  unsigned int old_code;
  int character;
  unsigned int count;

  while ( argc-- > 0 )
    printf( "Unknown argument: %s\n", *argv++ );
  for ( ; ; ) {
    old_code = (unsigned int) InputBits( input, current_code_bits );
    if ( old_code == END_OF_STREAM )
    character = old_code;

    putc( old_code, output );
    for ( ; ; ) {
      new_code = (unsigned int) InputBits( input, current_code_bits );
      if ( new_code == END_OF_STREAM )
      if ( new_code == FLUSH_CODE )
      if ( new_code == BUMP_CODE ) {
        putc( 'B', stdout );
      if ( new_code >= next_code ) {
        decode_stack[ 0 ] = (char) character;
        count = decode_string( 1, old_code );
        count = decode_string( 0, new_code );
      character = decode_stack[ count - 1 ];
      while ( count > 0 )
        putc( decode_stack[ --count ], output );
      DICT( next_code ).parent_code = old_code;
      DICT( next_code ).character = (char) character;
      old_code = new_code;

* This hashing routine is responsible for finding the table location
* for a string/character combination. The table index is created
* by using an exclusive OR combination of the prefix and character.
* This code also has to check for collisions, and handles them by
* jumping around in the table.

unsigned int find_child_node( parent_code, child_character )
int parent_code;
int child_character;
  unsigned int index;
  int offset;

  index = ( child_character << ( BITS - 8 ) ) ^ parent_code;
  if ( index == 0 )
    offset = 1;
    offset = TABLE_SIZE -index;
  for ( ; ; ) {
    if ( DICT( index ).code_value == UNUSED )
      return( (unsigned int) index );
    if ( DICT( index ).parent_code == parent_code &&
      DICT( index ). character == (char) child_character )
      return( index );
    if ( index >= offset )
      index -= offset;
      index += TABLE_SIZE - offset;

* This routine decodes a string from the dictionary, and stores it
* in the decode_stack data structure. It returns a count to the
* calling program of how many characters were placed in the stack.

unsigned int decode_string( count, code )
unsigned int count;
unsigned int code;
  while ( code > 255 ) {
    decode_stack[ count++ ] = DICT( code ).character;
    code = DICT( code ).parent_code;
  decode_stack[ count++ ] = (char) code;
  return( count );
/**************************** End of LZW15V.C **************************/

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